Allow to send HTTP/2 requests to APNS on CentOS6 and Python3.5.

Allow to send HTTP/2 requests to APNS on CentOS6 and Python3.5.

Trying to send Apple push notifications (APN) on CentOS6 using python hyper library got the ConnectionResetError And it looked like hyper is trying to use HTTP1.1 instead of HTTP/2.

It turns out hyper requires an ALPN (Application-Layer Protocol Negotiation) to negotiate HTTP/2. The latest openssl version available for eh6 is OpenSSL 1.0.1e, but ALPN was introduced > 1.0.2. In order not to brake dependencies, we need to compile and install new openssl library into our custom location. Also we need to compile Python specifying custom openssl library.

Let’d do it…

Install OpenSSL

Download and unpack sources:

cd /usr/local/src/
wget && tar -xzf openssl-1.0.2j.tar.gz

Configure and install

cd openssl-1.0.2j
./config shared --prefix=/usr/local --openssldir=/usr/local/openssl
make & make install

Install Python:

Download and unpack sources:

cd /usr/local/src/
wget && tar -xzf Python-3.5.3.tgz

Configure and install

cd Python-3.5.3
export LD_LIBRARY_PATH="/usr/local/lib/:/usr/local/lib64/" 
export CPPFLAGS="-I/usr/local/include -I/usr/local/include/openssl"
export LDFLAGS="-L/usr/local/lib/ -L/usr/local/lib64/"
./configure --prefix=/usr/local/
make & make install

Important: ensure all paths are correct At this point a good sign is not to have pip related errors.

Now let’s check ssl version.

Python 3.5.3 (default, Jan 20 2017, 15:47:07) 
[GCC 4.4.7 20120313 (Red Hat 4.4.7-17)] on linux
Type "help", "copyright", "credits" or "license" for more information.
>>> import ssl
'OpenSSL 1.0.2j  26 Sep 2016'

If you see something like:

ImportError: No module named _ssl

You can try:

  1. Ensure Environment variables were set correctly
  2. Ensure app path are correct.
  3. According to different sources: You may or may not need to install openssl-devel package before compiling Python. (I didn’t)
  4. Recompile an reinstall python

Now you can install pyopenssl, hyper using pip3, or create a virtual env and install there

/usr/local/bin/python3 /usr/local/bin/pip3 install pyopenssl hyper

Now after some coding you actually can try to send APN.

Notes: Prior to pyopenssl you may need ibffi libffi-devel packages.

Additional: There is a way to compile NGINX to serve as HTTP/2 server under CentOS6, check this script: script

On stack overflow for Python 3.4: How do I compile python 3.4 withcustom openssl

Andrii Kozlovskyi

I’m Software Engineer at Intelliarts.


Managing Technical Debt

The obvious plan how to manage technical debt. Continue reading

Measuring software engineering competency

Published on April 09, 2017

BDD tests for Hadoop with Cucumber. Part II

Published on December 21, 2016